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How to Solve Issues With Calender Gauge Control? – Part 1

Calender Gauge Control related variations was first in the list of of my earlier post 8 Common Defects In Rubber Calendering. Calender control issues directly affect your ability to properly control the rubber gauge or to produce a rubber sheet of consistent thickness. Rubber Calendering is the mechanical process by which rubber is pressed into textiles (cloth, fabric, tire cord) forming composite sheets.

While these sources are closely related, for quicker understanding, you may visualize and attribute the two main sources of variations in calendered gauge (or thickness) as,

  1. Mechanical Induced  – variations when your calender is not operating under any load and is at ambient conditions.
  2. Force Induced – variations when your calender is in operation or is programmed to follow a set-process for your product under manufacturing.
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India’s First Fully Automatic Tyre Cord Calender Line From Bharaj Machineries.

In this post, I will touch on Mechanically Induced Variations

Mechanically induced Calender Gauge variations relate directly to your rubber calender’s mechanical condition. Thus it’s basically a maintenance issue. While there are many maintenance issues that could affect your calender performance, the following FIVE directly effect your rubber sheet’s calendered gauge

  1. Grind Profile of Calender Roll (Roll Crowning)
  2. Eccentricity of Calender Roll or Run-out at Ambient Temperature
  3. Condition of Calender Roll’s Bearings
  4. Condition of Calender Roll’s Water Passage
  5. Condition of Calender Roll’s End Actuator

Let’s briefly examine each one.

  1. Grind Profile of Calender Roll (Roll Crowning)

You must periodically grind the calender rolls to establish the proper profile. Your selected crown profile is based on
the range of your rubber compound hardness, type of center compensation such as cross-axis or roll bending, and roll width.

The forces that separate the rubber calender rolls to bend apart in the center are partially compensated for, by grinding the center to a larger diameter. When the grind profile is incorrect it will be difficult or even impossible for you to achieve a consistently flat-calendered rubber sheet.

2. Eccentricity of Calender Roll or Run-out at Ambient Temperature

Your calender rolls must be round and free of run-out at ambient temperature. Any run-out of the individual calender rolls will be amplified as the high spots and low spots periodically match up between the roll pairs. You can easily check this with dial indicators when the calender is running without rubber and with a small nip gap between the pairing rolls.

3. Condition of Calender Roll’s Bearings

You must ensure that your Rubber Calender roll bearings does not have excessive run-out. Excessive bearing clearance will result in the roll shifting during operation because the roll separating forces vary. This could appear as calender roll surface run-out and will adversely affect your ability to control calendered gauge.

4. Condition of Calender Roll’s Water Passage 

Most modern calenders have drilled rolls. A drilled roll has water passages across the roll face beneath their surface. These water passages effectively forms a radiator-like heat exchanger around the periphery of your calender rolls.

In an event when these passages become plugged, then non-uniform heat transfer will occur. And this results in a thermal ‘out-of-round’ condition for your calender roll which subsequently has has the same effect as if the rolls were machined ‘out-of-round’.

You may avoid this situation by using only treated water and ensuring that the rolls are periodically flushed. You could also can check this condition by comparing the roll run-out or eccentricty at ambient temperature with that at normal operating temperatures of your Calender.

5. Condition of Calender Roll’s End Actuator

Of the different variants – manual, motor-driven and hydraulic nip gap adjustments – electric screw actuators are the most common type of calender roll end-positioning-system. The screw and nut operate under very high loads and thus, you will observe, that they experience significant wear even with proper lubrication. As these actuators wear, backlash develops.

When the backlash increases, the response to small changes or corrections deteriorate. Further with increased backlash the number of corrections required would increase, which in turn causes additional wear.

Rubber calenders that have fixed speed electric motors with mechanical brakes require periodic maintenance, particularly the brakes. Because sticky brakes will adversely affect your gauge control results.

Summarizing, proper maintenance of all the above systems is crucial to your rubber calender performance and solve issues with calender gauge control that are mechanically induced.

Mechanically Induced Variations in Calender Gauge

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Do you agree?

(In Part 2, we will cover the force induced variations)

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Practical Modern Solutions For Tyre And Rubber Industry

Change is inevitable. Changes in the business environment happen all the time. The economy fluctuates up or down on a daily basis, frequently causing businesses to alter the way they operate. New competitors enter the marketplace while others leave. Advancements in technologies, products and innovation lead to change in a business environment.

Sustaining and innovating amidst changes is the hallmark of exemplary leadership. Pelmar Group has been displaying dynamic leadership for the last 50 years! Hence, in this special edition of Know Your Supplier’s cover story, we showcase for you Pelmar Engineering Ltd., the Practical Modern Solution Providers For Tyre And Rubber Industry.

We understand from our conversation with Jacob Peled, Founder and Executive Chairman, that Pelmar had three consecutive record years. And is now planning expansion of both its commercial and technical activities in Israel and worldwide.

It’s not easy to achieve three record years consecutively handling a range of activities that include pre-owned machinery, new equipment, complete engineering services, raw materials, military technical rubber production, technology transfer, M&A activity and more. Because, this requires efficiency and focus.

Don’t miss our main interview to know how Pelmar has been consistently outperforming customer expectations year-on-year.


Click on the image to read

(You may read this digital edition either on Youblisher and/or Yumpu platform.)

An anecdote shared by Peled in his own words that I choose to mention here.

“I was asked a question yesterday evening by one of the persons I admire most in the industry, Michael Labbe the Managing Director of Rema TipTop, how could I and Pelmar cope with handling so many various subjects efficiently at the same time. He referred mainly to Pelmar handling pre-owned machinery, new equipment, complete engineering services, raw materials, military technical rubber production, technology transfer, M&A activity and more. I did not have a proper answer.

This morning I had breakfast with the technical director of one of the major Tier 1 tyre companies, who asked me how could I with the size of our Group, with the international spread, with the diversity of functions handle only one industry, the tire and rubber industry. I tried to explain that tire and the technical rubber industry are separate, but found myself mumbling.

The worst thing about the above is that both questions are absolutely correct and in place. The only answer that I can think of is that because we are handling “just one industry” we can and should be involved in as many aspects of this industry as possible.”

Pelmar Engineering Ltd.

Identifying and capitalizing on the opportunities swiftly along with thirst for growth has helped Pelmar diversify their expertise, spread reach globally and offer single-stop shop total solutions for rubber and tyre industry.

Additionally, on this digital edition, we have two knowledge-enriching topics from our portal aptly titled ‘Insight’ and ‘Tips’ sections.

Download PDF of this special edition here

I hope you find the contents informative to learn more about this leader in rubber and tyre industry.

If you found this supplier details informative, please do share with your colleagues, customers and friends who could benefit. And if you would like to be informed of our articles regularly, please register with us for free updates today.

Know Your Supplier is an advertorial initiative of Rubber & Tyre Machinery World. 

If you would like your organization to be promoted on Rubber Machinery World, please see the opportunities on Partner Me or Contact Me at for your customized offering.

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Why We Love Gear Coupling (And You Should, Too!)

First things first! You choose a coupling to connect two shafts together at their ends to transmit power. The primary purpose of coupling is to join two pieces of rotating equipment while permitting some degree of misalignment or end movement or both.

Normally, couplings do not allow shafts to disconnect during operation, however there are torque limiting couplings which can slip or disconnect when some torque limit is exceeded. Hence, you should carefully select, install and maintain couplings; as this could give you substantial savings in the form of reduced maintenance costs and downtime.

Gear Coupling

A gear coupling is a mechanical device to join two rotating shafts (that are not collinear) for efficient transmission of mechanical power. These are crucial because although you may align the shafts (for example, between the gearbox and the mixing mill roll) at the time of installation, it is likely that during the operation there may be disruption to this alignment.

Disruptions could occur due to setting of foundation, thermal expansion, shaft deflection, wearing out of other parts, improper maintenance and many more reasons. At these times, where the misalignment occurring during the operation is unavoidable, a gear coupling compensate or minimize the effect of misalignment thus providing a good solution to prevent your rubber machinery, bearings, seals and shafts from being subjected to the additional forces.

Gear couplings are power intensive and considered as the king of the coupling types. You would see the gear couplings being adopted for wide range of application in drive technologies. Hence, we love love gear coupling (and I think, you would too!).

Gear Couplings and Universal Joints

Gear couplings and universal joints are used in similar applications. Gear couplings have higher torque densities than universal joints designed to fit a given space, while universal joints induce lower vibrations. The limit on torque density in universal joints is due to the limited cross sections of the cross and yoke.

The gear teeth in a gear coupling have high backlash to allow for angular misalignment. The excess backlash can contribute to vibration.

Structure of a Gear Coupling

Gear couplings are torsionally rigid and consist of hubs with multi crowned teeth at flank, tip and chamfering on teeth, gaskets, sleeve and O-rings. The hubs attach to the machinery shafts, and sleeves span the gap from one hub to the next. They are available in two designs – completely flexible and flexible/rigid.

The hub is the heart of any gear coupling. Hence manufacturers take great care to impart a superior design and mostly manufacture the hub on CNC machine for precision. Together with the tooth profile of the hub, these aspects enable the gear coupling to function well under all operating conditions with increased reliability and long life.

The tooth flanks and outer diameter of the external gear are crowned to allow for angular displacement between the two gears. The multi crowned teeth reduce the alignment adjustment and improve the load carrying capacity of the teeth. The backlash between the teeth is minimal due to multi-crown tooth design.

A completely flexible coupling comprises two hubs with an external gear and two outer sleeves with an internal gear. It’s a universal coupling for all sorts of applications and accommodates all possible misalignment (angular, radial and combined) as well as large axial moments.

Structure of a Gear Coupling

A flexible/rigid coupling comprises one flexible geared half and one rigid half. It does not accommodate parallel displacement of shafts but does accommodate angular misalignment.

Information to order Gear Coupling

When you are buying rubber machinery, your machinery supplier or OEM would take care of this. However, you need to understand that there is a check list of information that needs to be provided to a gear coupling supplier that includes,

  1. Specify quantity required and delivery expectations.
  2. Specify shaft or bore sizes and key-way dimensions. You need to give exact dimensions with tolerances.
  3. Specify load – HP and/or torque at a specific RPM. State the normal and maximum conditions of use.
  4. Specify Speed of operation – Minimum, Normal and Maximum.
  5. Specify Application. Most Rubber & Tyre Machinery (Mixers, Kneaders, Mills, Calenders, Extruders, etc) conforms to a service factor classification where heavy shock conditions or frequent reversing peak loads that do not exceed 150 per cent average horse power is observed. Uneven load is usually present during operation. Service factor ranges from 1.25 to 1.50.
  6. Specify Coupling Series, Type and Size.
  7. Specify Space limitations – envelope dimensions, shaft extensions and shaft spacing.
  8. Specify unusual misalignment conditions if any.
  9. Specify Modifications – tapered bores, special keys, hub cut off, counter bores or others
  10. Specify unusual operating conditions ambient temperatures and atmospheres, if any.

Maintenance of Gear Coupling

Gear Coupling maintenance is mostly simple – requiring a regularly scheduled inspection of each coupling. Your schedule should consist of:

  • Performing visual inspections – checking for signs of wear or fatigue, and cleaning couplings regularly.
  • Checking and changing lubricant Each coupling half is provided with grease nipple/plug on the housing from where grease can be filled directly. The coupling is supplied with some quality of grease to facilitate assembly. It is recommended to fill the required quality and quantity of grease before putting the coupling in operation. This maintenance is required annually for most couplings and more frequently for couplings in adverse environments or in demanding operating conditions.
  • Documenting the maintenance performed on each coupling, along with the date.

Here’s a 1:17 min video of dismantling of a gear coupling so you could appreciate the components that make-up this coupling much better.

Video of Dismantling of A Gear Coupling


Failure of Gear Coupling

Caution! Even with proper maintenance, your gear couplings can fail. The other causes of failure include:

  • Improper installation
  • Poor coupling selection
  • Operation beyond design capabilities

The only way to improve your coupling life is to understand what caused the failure and to correct it prior to installing a new coupling. You could check for some external signs that indicate potential coupling failure like,

  • Abnormal noise, such as screeching, squealing or chattering
  • Excessive vibration or wobble
  • Failed seals indicated by lubricant leakage or contamination

Summarizing, gear coupling is a mechanical device to join two rotating shafts for efficient transmission of mechanical power, are power intensive and is the king amongst the coupling types. They offer the highest load capacity and stiffness, yet easy to maintain. These are some of our reasons to love this gear coupling on the rubber machinery. 

Do you have more? Let us know your thoughts.

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One Must Dare To Dream – R.V.Gandhi

One must dare to dream. Entrepreneurship is about dreaming and conceptualising, says R.V.Gandhi, Managing Director and chief promoter of GRP Ltd in an exclusive interview with Rubber & Tyre Machinery World.

“Great leaders don’t set out to be a leader. They set out to make a difference. It’s never about the role – always about the goal.” 

The above verse best summarizes Rajendra V. Gandhi (RVG). From building an ethical corporate organization in GRP, to serving on prestigious boards and industry bodies, public and private trusts that serve the cause of education in rubber, women empowerment, training in ethical values, water resource management, Gandhi’s immense contribution to Indian rubber industry has established him as an inspirational business leader and an iconic corporate citizen.

While the global reclaim industry depended on the European technology for manufacturing, Gandhi boldly decided to design, fabricate and install an entire plant and machinery for the manufacture of Reclaim Rubber, with complete indigenous components when India was largely deprived of foreign funds for imported machinery. This pioneering effort, at the start of his career as a young graduate engineer from IIT-Mumbai, ensured the beginning of a reclaim movement in India. Under Gandhi’s leadership, GRP Ltd has emerged as one of the largest manufacturer of reclaim rubber in the world, setting benchmarks for others to follow. Its an honour to know him and present you his leadership wisdom in this edition.


Click cover to read online

I urge you not to miss reading this complete interview online on our digital edition (or please click on the image above). You will immensely gain from his wisdom shared through passionate narration of personal experiences of over 40 years; know his views on changes, new ideas energizing the reclaim rubber industry, sustainability, challenges, expectations from equipment manufacturers, and machinery selection advice for buyers.

Here’s one teaser Q&A below, while the full interview has 10 questions.

Q) Reclaim Rubber is widely used in manufacturing of automobile tyres and tubes as well as many other rubber products. How do you ensure that industry acknowledges the ‘sustainability & environment friendly’ aspect of Reclaim Rubber and consciously increase its usage in their products; especially when there are favourable price fluctuations for them in NR and SR?

RVG: In the aftermath of the World War II, Reclaim Rubber emerged as a significant player in countries like USA to offer the third source of rubber hydro carbon after Natural Rubber and Synthetic Rubber. But with advent of cheap crude oil prices in the 50’s and 60’s, and huge production of Synthetic Rubber saw demise of Reclaim Rubber Industry in the western world. By late 70’s barring one or two Reclaim Rubber producers almost all manufacturers ceased to exist in USA / Europe.

As a result, almost one generation of rubber technologists did not have the knowledge of use/advantages of reclaim rubber in compounding.

Consequently, when our Company in early 90s decided to enter export market we realized, we had to re-educate technical people in the compounding division of our customers to see the benefit of Reclaim Rubber as a technically sound ingredient / raw material rather than cheap inexpensive filler. It took a lot of time and efforts to build trust with our customers.

After 2005, with the Chinese economy galloping at more than 10% annually, there was a concern worldwide about possible shortage of Natural and Synthetic Rubber. The prices of Natural and Synthetic Rubber along with crude oil price began to rise rapidly. In addition, with the adverse effect of global warming, several Governments became conscious about sustainability and environmental degradation.

GRP since then has been highlighting the role of Reclaim Rubber from the point of view of sustainability and as a environmental friendly raw material. We have succeeded to some extent in this endeavour.

In recent times, however with the crash in the commodity prices as well as in the prices of Natural and Synthetic Rubber, there are fewer incentives for using more Reclaim Rubber despite of it being more environment friendly raw material.


 Download PDF

Also, the center fold of this issue ‘One Page Leadership Insights from Around the World’ should be an added resource for you, I trust.

Centre Page Preview

Do review page 25 of the eEdition

I look forward to your feedback and thoughts of this interview.

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Meet A Technology Supplier in Cutting Edge Rubber Injection Moulding

Injection Moulding is an important processing technique for converting elastomeric materials into final products. The injection moulding machine automatically performs raw material feeding, heating, polymer mix plasticization, and mould injection; all operations are performed under controllable conditions of temperature, time, speed and pressure.

As Injection Moulding of Rubber compounds becomes an increasingly important moulding process, it is crucial that machinery technology stays ahead to meet the rapidly changing requirements.

Guangdong Yizumi Precision Machinery Co., Ltd is a hi-tech enterprise focusing on Design, R&D, Production, Sales and Service of moulding machines. High-quality Rubber Injection Machines (RIM) by one of their subsidiaries, Yizumi Rubber Machinery Co., Ltd., is amongst their main products.

In this Rubber & Tyre Machinery World’s Special Edition of Technology & Innovation, I bring you an exclusive interview with Wang ShihaiGeneral Manager of Yizumi Rubber Machinery Co., Ltd. We understand from Wang that since last 6 years, innovation, technology and thirst for global leadership has been driving their RIM business.

“Yizumi has seen a rapid growth in global sales so far and we are committed to provide free of charge service under warranty”, emphasizes Wang Shihai.

I reproduce for you a teaser of our conversation in this post. Please do read full interview to comprehensively Know this Technology Supplier in Cutting-Edge Rubber Injection Moulding Machinery on the special edition here or by clicking on the below image.

Yizumi Rubber Machinery - Technology & Innovation Special

Q) I see that you have big range for Rubber Moulding Industry (comprising of more than 7 Models). So, what products and services can a prospective buyer expect when they come to you?

Wang Shihai: Besides customized machines, Yizumi has other 7 machine series because there are so many types of rubber products and they are different in shape and performance demand. Also, customers’ requirements vary a lot, so we recommend different machine series for customers with different products. When customers have no idea of which model fits for them, we will give detailed analysis including TCO evaluation based on customers’ needs.

Q) Do you believe that buyers should evaluate TCO (Total Cost of Ownership) while buying machinery and not just the initial price? Have you been successful in your markets to convince your buyers to evaluate the TCO of equipment?

Wang Shihai: We cannot agree more. And we have several successful cases where customers are satisfied. But we should pay attention to the following points when evaluating TCO:
1. Correct basic data;
2. Verifiable method;
3. Customer’s actual production status;
4. Ultimate benefits oriented for customers.

To make up, modify, or exaggerate the data for winning the orders will affect the final result of TCO, and it should be avoided.


Q) Could you throw some light on how do you compete technologically for your products and service offerings against the European brands? How do you keep pace with the rest of the world to meet your goal of being “No.1 in the rubber injection machine industry” by 2017? 

Wang Shihai: Normally, European brand RIM is high in both performance and price. And it is widely accepted as good machines but what Yizumi prefers is to recommend a machine that is most suitable for the customer. Yizumi adopts modular design including 5 different types of injection plasticising structure (injection volume
0.15L – 80L), 7 types of clamping structure (clamping force 25T – 1800T) in total. The injection plasticising unit in different structure and different volume and clamping unit in different structure and clamping force can form 51 machine models, among which you can have 5 different power systems with more than 30 other optional devices for choices. We offer most suitable technology, machine model and configuration according to customer’s needs. Also, customization is available in order to guarantee that customer can purchase more suitable equipment and avoid the waste of machine performance and functions.

Meanwhile, Yizumi is the first RIM manufacturer to provide globally free after-sales service within warranty. Even after warranty, Yizumi will provide life-long machine maintenance and upgrade services at a fair price.

Besides, in order to launch “low price machine” to the market, some European brands adopts mechanical parts with low quality and cut down some necessary functions. This is totally not in line with the developing trend of rubber moulding industry.


China has already become an important production base of the global moulding equipment industry. Chinese equipment have become more relevant in global market. And Yizumi is a company that innovates regularly and focuses on providing cutting-edge technology to its customers.

“Yizumi is the most reliable partner for customers, please tell us what you really need, let’s decide the most suitable machine model for you” says Wang Shihai.

Please Download PDF Here of the full eMagazine for your digital library.

Below is a rubber machinery supplier info image-card of Yizumi and their contacts, if you would like to reach them quickly.

Yizumi Info On RMW Post

I hope you find the contents informative to learn more about this Rubber Injection Machinery (RIM) supplier.

If you found this supplier details informative, please do share with your colleagues, customers and friends who could benefit. And if you would like to be informed of our articles regularly, please register with us for free updates today.

Technology & Innovation is an advertorial initiative of Rubber Machinery World and all information are as provided by the supplier. If you desire to know more, kindly reach out on the contact details provided or write to me stating the additional details you seek on this supplier.

And if you would like your organization to be promoted on Rubber Machinery World, please see the opportunities on Partner Me or Contact Me at for your customized offering.


13 Things You Should Know About Hydraulic Power Pack

If you have seen or used an Internal Mixer, Bale Cutter, Press, or any Hydraulic machinery then you have witnessed a Hydraulic Power Pack in operation.


Here are 13 things you should know about Hydraulic Power Pack.

  1. By definition, hydraulic power packs are self-contained power-units used instead of a built-in power supply, to transmit power from one location to another and thus run your rubber machinery. A hydraulic system employs enclosed fluid to transfer energy from one source to another, and subsequently create rotary motion, linear motion, or force.
  2. Hydraulic power packs come in different shapes and sizes; some are very large and stationary whereas others are smaller and compact. The mechanical characteristics and specifications of a hydraulic power pack dictate the type of applications for which it can be effective.
  3. You can identify hydraulic power packs through its main components. Because irrespective of the size of the unit, all power packs will have the following;
  • A hydraulic reservoir (or tank) which holds the enclosed oil. This is a storage unit designed with enough volume for the oil in the pipes to drain into it. They also ensure this oil is stored and maintained in the best possible condition. Reservoirs will come in different sizes. Common auxiliaries for a reservoir include filler/breathers and drain ports, level gauge, level switches and inspection covers.
  • Regulators that control and maintain the amount of pressure that the hydraulic power pack delivers. These are very vital.
  • Pressure Supply lines and Relief lines. The supply line supplies fluid under pressure to the pump and the relief lines relieve pressure between the pump and the valves. The relief lines also control the direction of flow through the system.
  • Motor to power a pump
  • A pump to perform two actions. Firstly, it creates a vacuum at the pump inlet and with the help of atmospheric pressure, forces fluid from the reservoir into the inlet line. This fluid is then fed to the pump. The pump then delivers this fluid to the pump outlet and force feeds it into the hydraulic system.
  1. Some of the important factors that influence a hydraulic power unit’s performance are pressure limits, power capacity, and reservoir volume. In addition, its physical characteristics including size, power supply, and pumping strength are also significant considerations. Reputed suppliers take great care to ensure that a large, durable hydraulic power unit is built for functioning under a range of environmental conditions.
  2. Hydraulic power packs have other components like
  • Filters: Filtration is a critical part of a hydraulic power pack, ensuring wear is minimised and efficiencies are maintained. Basic suction strainers do not allow large contaminants to enter the pump. Pressure filters are normally configured at the pump outlet and ensure only filtered oil enters the hydraulic system. Contamination within the system is filtered out by the return filter before it enters the hydraulic reservoir.
  • Pressure Control valves that limit or control the hydraulic pressure within the hydraulic system.
  • Directional Control hydraulic valves (manual, electrical, pneumatic or hydraulic operated) direct the oil flow around the system to operate actuators, motors or other functions.
  • Cooling is another other key consideration, where efficiencies within a system or machine will produce heat in the oil; this must be cooled to ensure long life and high-efficiency.
  • Accumulators: These are containers that can be attached to the hydraulic actuators. They collect oil from the pump and are intended to build and maintain fluid pressure to supplement the motor pumping system.
  • Coolers and Heaters: As part of the temperature regulation process, an air cooler can be installed near or behind the filter unit to prevent temperatures from rising above operational parameters. Likewise, a heating system, such as an oil-based heater, can be used to elevate temperatures when necessary.
  • Power Unit Controllers: The hydraulic controller unit is the operator interface containing power switches, displays, and monitoring features. It is necessary for installing and integrating a power unit into a hydraulic systems, and can usually be found wired into the power unit. Oil level and temperature protection switch, Pressure switches and filter clogging switches are quite common.


  1. Hydraulic power packs come with a variety of valve connections. This means that you can power a variety of rubber and tyre machinery by using the appropriate valves. Most manufacturers segregate their models into a ‘standard’, ‘mini’, ‘micro’ or‘bespoke’ power pack categories.
  2. When picking a hydraulic power pack there are a variety of pumps and options to pick from. Hence, it is important to pick the right power pack to meet your machines needs. It is also important to consider a power pack that will help maximise productivity and minimise cost.
  3. In rubber and tyre machinery, you would need custom design of your hydraulic power packs depending on the features you select and how you select. For example, you could either opt for a single power pack for your drop door and hydraulic ram operations of a mixer; or choose separate power packs for individual operations depending on the circumstances at your plant.
  4. Your supplier should review the pressure and flow data together with you. And they should also take load profiles and the thermal budget into account. Doing this ensures that you get a power pack that precisely meets your technical requirements and operates economically.
  5. It is ideal if you or your machinery supplier get everything integrated from a single source. Because, fewer interfaces means your hydraulic system gets built faster. Your costs are lower, too.
  6. Experts recommend use of high-efficiency low-noise internal gear pumps when designing power packs. Your supplier may consider accumulator charging technology or variable speed drives as may be the case for your application. Multiple pressure circuits are another option.
  7. Hydraulic power packs require regular maintenance to ensure they work properly and safely for extended periods of use. Maintaining hydraulic power packs is relatively simple. You should check the tubing for any noticeable problems such as dents or cracks. You should also inspect the reservoir to check for any corrosion or rust. And do regularly change the hydraulic fluid as per recommended maintenance schedule of your hydraulic power pack.
  8. Hydraulic power packs must be installed and mounted in a clean and dry location void of any standing water or accumulated run-off.

Summarizing, you should opt for a power pack that has low power consumption, requires very little installation space, and operates with low cooling requirements. This would mean that your operating costs are very low for the unit and it’s easy to integrate into your main machinery. All of these would help you procure power packs featuring high reliability and availability on the one hand, and easy and cost-effective integration into your rubber machinery on the other.

Did I miss some aspects?  Would you like to add more to this list? Let us know.

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What Is Vulcanization? 5 Amazing Videos You Must See

Vulcanization of rubber is a process of improvement of the rubber elasticity and strength by heating it in the presence of sulphur. I touched upon vulcanization in our earlier posts on Autoclave and Rotocure.

A quick glance at Wikipedia will tell you that although vulcanization is a 19th-century invention, the history of rubber cured by other means goes back to prehistoric times. Thomas Hancock (1786–1865), a scientist and engineer, was the first to patent vulcanization of rubber. He was awarded a British patent on May 21, 1844. Three weeks later, on June 15, 1844, Charles Goodyear was awarded a patent in the United States.

While a picture is worth thousand words, logically a video is worth much more. Hence today I choose to concisely share with you over 1 million words in 5 amazing videos on vulcanization.

The first video of 4.49 mins is an ideal start if you are trying to get your basics right on vulcanization process and gives you a text book approach. (Caution: The slow speed and tone can be unnerving to some of you!)

Vulcanization Video 1

The next one is a more professionally made one from ‘How Stuff Works?’ and expands the concepts of vulcanization further. This video is concise and 2.10 mins long.


The third video (3.39 mins) shows an application in the form of Rubber O-Ring Vulcanization Bonding.

Rubber O-Ring Vulcanization Bonding Video

Speaking of Curing and Vulcanization in rubber, it is pertinent to mention tyres. The next video is 5.17 mins long on ‘How are bicycle tyres made?’ and the application of vulcanization is just a small part of this whole process. However, it gives you the perspective to position rubber vulcanization rightly in the product manufacturing process.


With technology advancements, conventional methods are being replaced with more energy efficient and productive solutions. It is in this context, you may see the next video of a Rubber  Profile Curing Vulcanizing Line. The 1.33 min video by Deguma shows a CV-line consisting of a UHF microwave channel, a hot-air channel and a infrared channel.


Did you find the fourth video of bicycle tyre above curious to explore more? Or are you a bicycling fan? Then here is a sixth video as bonus for you. Well-paced, detailed and professionally made, I found this 10.56 min video of a modern bicycle tyre and tube manufacturing from Schwalbe interesting. (Note: I am not making any brand recommendation here. However, the video is worth a watch.)

Bicycle Tyre and Tube Video

You would have spent a little less than 19 minutes if you have watched all the 5 videos on vulcanization in full. Were they knowledge-enhancing? Let me know your thoughts.

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