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Editor’s Pick: Manufacture of Cold Retreading Material (Part 2)

This is a continuation to Part 1 of this informative article on Manufacture of Cold Retreading Material shared by Dr.S.N.Chakravarty.

Cold Retreading Material - Part 2

Advantages of ‘Pre Cured’ Process:

  1. Precured rubber generally gives more mileage than the conventional rubber due to richer compound, denser tread and flatter profile;
  2. For radial tires, pre-cure retreading is the most ideal process. Radial tire, in its construction, has an inextensible belt. In the conventional retreading process the matrix (rigid mould) should have exact dimensions matching the dimensions of a built radial tire.  Even a small difference in the matrix dimension affects the ultimate performance of the retreaded tire.  But in the case of pre-cure retreading, radial tires are cured in a chamber and not confined to a rigid matrix or mould, hence there is no distortion.
  3. Longer casing life because tire is retreaded in inflated normal road running condition. Thus the casing is not put under tension and over stressed as it happens inside a rigid mould.  (Due to distortion of casing, the number of times a tire can be retreaded with conventional retreading is always lesser than with pre-cure retreading).
  4. Better balancing, due to uniform thickness of tread and better buffing and building techniques.
  5. Better traction due to flatter profile of buffing.

Advantages of Conventional retreading process

  1. More economical (compared to cold cure retreading).
  2. Comparative advantage ( pre cure retreading due to difficulties in setting up franchisees everywhere in case of latter – high investment).
  3. Better aesthetics (compared to pre cure retreading since better finish given to the tire sidewall also).

Tire Retreading Processes 1

Tire Retreading: Salient Features

  1. Since labour is one of the main components of tire retreading in the organized sector, it is more profitable to undertake high value addition business in the organized sector (i.e. retreading of truck and bus, light truck, jeep etc.). Hence, pre cure retreading of other categories of tyres (especially farm, two wheelers etc.) is not as popular.
  2. Retreading, as per international experience, finds greater and ready acceptance in the commercial segment since the main objective is ‘savings’ whereas in the passenger segment the focus is ‘safety’ followed by ‘aesthetics’. Moreover, savings are also very low in passenger segment.
  3. In India, trucks carrying loads above 16 ton and plying on long distance routes do not find operational economy in using retreaded tires. However, trucks and buses plying short distance routes (and loading pattern upto 12 ton) find retreading a more economical option.
  4. The current trend is going in favour of pre-cured primarily due to the following reasons:
  • Better road conditions (with resultant less damage to tire casing)
  • Better driving habits (getting more mileage even from retreaded tires)
  • Overloading is comparatively less
  • Presence of large number of ‘job shops’ for retreading with each specializing in a special part of the process – repairing, buffing, curing etc. being handled by different persons/processors who, over the years, have gained sufficient experience and expertise in conventional retreading.

 

Pre-cured Tread Manufacturing Process

Compound Mixing

Typical Compound Formulation of Pre-cured Tread, Solution and Cushion Gum

 Ingredients Pre-Cured Tread Compound

(phr)

Solution Compound

(phr)

Cushion Gum Compound

(phr)

Natural Rubber ( RMA 4 ) 70 100 100
Polybutadine Rubber (High cis type) 30 0 0
Rubber crumb ( 40 mesh ) 5 0 0
 WT Reclaim Rubber 5 0 10
Peptizer 0.15 0.2 0.3
Zinc Oxide (White Seal) 4 4 5
Stearic Acid 3 1.5 1.5
Antioxidant TDQ 1 1 1.5
Antioxidant 4020 1 0 0
MC Wax 0.8 0 0
Carbon Black N 339 / 220 65 0 0
Carbon Black N 550 0 35 30
Rubber Process Oil 710 12 12 0
Pine Tar 0 0 12
Wood Rosin 0 6 5
PF Resin 0 2 4
MF Resin 0 2.8 0
Insoluble Sulfur 0 0 3
Sulfur 2.3 3 0
Accelerator  NOBS 0.8 0 1
Accelerator TMTD 0 0 0.25
Retarder PVI 0.1 0 0.15
200.15 167.50 173.70

Rubber compound is prepared by mixing rubber with different ingredients like fillers, process oil, activators, accelerators, curing agents, antioxidants etc. In order to achieve desired level of properties of the product. It is necessary to reinforce rubber with different fillers and vulcanize with sulfur with the help of accelerator etc.

Mixing and mastication are carried out in an Internal Mixer or Kneader or Two Roll mixing mill.

Rubber compounding is one of the most difficult and complex subjects to master in the field of Rubber Technology. There is no simple mathematical formulation to help the compounder. That is why compounding is so difficult a task. (More on this subject)

Kobelco Make Mixers

L&T Marketed Kobelco Make Internal Mixers

Principles of Mixing 

Vulcanizable polymers cannot be used without compounding. Various additives like curative system, protective system, reinforcing agents, cheapeners and other process aids have to be mixed to the polymer or polymer blend ‘to make a coherent homogeneous mass of all these ingredients, which will process satisfactory and on Vulcanization will give the product capable of giving the desired performance, all with the minimum expenditure of machine time and energy.’ (More on this topic)

Extruder and Extrusion Process

Extruders are machines, which shape rubber to a profiled strip by forcing it through a die. (More on this topic)

The rubber compound is passed through a hot feed or cold feed extruder to produce rubber blanks of suitable size (width and thickness) for use in the next manufacturing step i.e. curing in a hydraulic press.

BHARAJ MAKE 200MM PIN BARREL EXTRUDER WITH TREAD DIE HEAD

BHARAJ MAKE 200MM PIN BARREL EXTRUDER WITH TREAD DIE HEAD

The extruded and cut rubber blanks are placed in tread dies and cured in a steam-heated hydraulic press at suitable curing temperature and pressure. After the curing cycle is completed cured treads with desired tread pattern are taken out and cooled.

Cushion Gum

A three roll calendering machine is used to prepare “cushion gum” i.e. uncured rubber sheet that acts as an adhesive layer between the pre-cured tread and tyre casing during the pre-cured retreading process.

Cushion Gum Roll

Cushion Gum Roll

The term “to calendar” is defined as “to press between rollers or plates in order to make smooth & glossy sheet”.

Calender can be of two bowl or three bowl or multiple bowl machines which is used for Calender rolls are not perfectly cylindrical but have different shape.

Solution

A solution churner vessel is used for the preparation of cement solution (contact adhesive) applied to the casing and helps provide increased adhesion between the casing and the cushion.

****

Here is a flow chart for you summarizing the production process.

Pre-cured Tread - Production Flow Chart

Dr. Chakravarty can be reached on kpspltd@gmail.com


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Global Approach To Rubber Machinery Technology

Make in India is an initiative launched by the Government of India in 2014 to encourage multi-national and national companies to manufacture their products in India. While this initiative has garnered significant international attention and keenly watched, few Indian machinery companies have been steadily building up their repute with global approach and right technology.

In this special edition of Know Your Supplier’s cover story, we feature one such company Bharaj Machineries Pvt. Ltd., through an interactive conversation with Amardeep Singh, Director – Sales & Projects.

Established in 1982 with a vision, to always produce most advanced and quality machinery for the rubber industry, Bharaj has transformed into a giant machinery supplier. Read the full interview here of how Bharaj’s aspiration to be leaders in their various business segments’ is filled with passion and backed with technology.

KYS Cover-June-2016

Click image to read

(This digital edition is available on Youblisher and Yumpu)

Based in Mumbai, India, Bharaj manufactures and supply high-quality and advanced machinery for the rubber industry. They specialise in rubber mould manufacturing, rubber moulding, extrusion and mixing technology.

They are a preferred choice for many rubber related industries starting from Tyre, Automotive, Sports, Footwear, Pharmaceutical, Aerospace and Specialized Silicon Rubber Industry with exports to USA, UK, France, Canada and many Asian Countries.

Here is a teaser from the interview.

Q) What products and services can a prospective equipment buyer expect when they approach you?

ASB: Yes, we offer complete solutions in rubber mould manufacturing, rubber moulding, extrusion and rubber mixing areas. Bharaj designs and manufactures latest technology rubber machinery that saves power, compact in size, has low maintenance, requires minimum labour through smart automation and are user-friendly. Our prospects can choose from a range of Cold Feed Extruders (Plain/Vent Types), Heavy duty Rubber Mixing Mills, Rubber Dispersion Kneaders, Hot Feed Extruders, Refiner Mills, Cracker Mills, Grinding Mills, Calenders with complete lines, Batch-Off Units, Vulcanizers, Bale Cutters, Conveyors, Stock Blenders, Vacuum Compression Type Rubber Moulding Machines, etc.

Bharaj Machineries

Q) How do you compete technologically on your product offerings? 

ASB: Starting as a small manufacturing unit, today Bharaj Machineries has evolved into a well-respected machinery supplier for the rubber industry in India as well as in the Global Market in the areas of rubber mould manufacturing, rubber moulding, extrusion and mixing technology. We focus on providing high quality machinery at a competitive price. The wide range of quality machinery made by Bharaj is well-accepted worldwide. Our competitively priced equipment performs consistently and we extend prompt back-up. We export to developed countries like USA, UK, France, Canada and many Asian countries. Hence, it is also apt to mention here that Bharaj manufactured machinery are considered as a first choice for many rubber related industries starting from Tyre, Automotive, Sports, Pharmaceutical, Footwear, Aerospace and Specialized Silicon Rubber Industry. Depending on the equipment, we offer quick delivery to our customers. Some of our equipment is delivered in as low as 25 days.

Download PDF of this special edition here

As they pursue global growth, Bharaj management respects and value every equipment buyers’ desire for optimum technology in their production floor. Emphasizes, Amardeep Singh Bharaj,

“We recommend the right machinery with right features that gives our customers the best return on his investment. This means we consult him on equipment selection to match his production process, share layout drawings and take great care to clarify his genuine queries in the most practical manner feasible. Depending on availability, we arrange equipment visits for our prospects either at our 30,500 Sft ultramodern and state-of-the-art manufacturing plant near Mumbai or at any of customer sites.”

I hope you find the contents on this leading rubber and tyre industry equipment supplier, and their global approach to rubber machinery technology, informative .

Below is the rubber machinery supplier info image-card of Bharaj Machineries and their contacts, if you would like to reach them quickly.

Bharaj Info Card

In addition, we have two other knowledge-enriching topics from our portal in the ‘Insight’ and ‘Tips’ sections of this special edition.

Let me know your thoughts.


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Practical Modern Solutions For Tyre And Rubber Industry

Change is inevitable. Changes in the business environment happen all the time. The economy fluctuates up or down on a daily basis, frequently causing businesses to alter the way they operate. New competitors enter the marketplace while others leave. Advancements in technologies, products and innovation lead to change in a business environment.

Sustaining and innovating amidst changes is the hallmark of exemplary leadership. Pelmar Group has been displaying dynamic leadership for the last 50 years! Hence, in this special edition of Know Your Supplier’s cover story, we showcase for you Pelmar Engineering Ltd., the Practical Modern Solution Providers For Tyre And Rubber Industry.

We understand from our conversation with Jacob Peled, Founder and Executive Chairman, that Pelmar had three consecutive record years. And is now planning expansion of both its commercial and technical activities in Israel and worldwide.

It’s not easy to achieve three record years consecutively handling a range of activities that include pre-owned machinery, new equipment, complete engineering services, raw materials, military technical rubber production, technology transfer, M&A activity and more. Because, this requires efficiency and focus.

Don’t miss our main interview to know how Pelmar has been consistently outperforming customer expectations year-on-year.

Know-Your-Supplier-Pelmar-May-2016

Click on the image to read

(You may read this digital edition either on Youblisher and/or Yumpu platform.)

An anecdote shared by Peled in his own words that I choose to mention here.

“I was asked a question yesterday evening by one of the persons I admire most in the industry, Michael Labbe the Managing Director of Rema TipTop, how could I and Pelmar cope with handling so many various subjects efficiently at the same time. He referred mainly to Pelmar handling pre-owned machinery, new equipment, complete engineering services, raw materials, military technical rubber production, technology transfer, M&A activity and more. I did not have a proper answer.

This morning I had breakfast with the technical director of one of the major Tier 1 tyre companies, who asked me how could I with the size of our Group, with the international spread, with the diversity of functions handle only one industry, the tire and rubber industry. I tried to explain that tire and the technical rubber industry are separate, but found myself mumbling.

The worst thing about the above is that both questions are absolutely correct and in place. The only answer that I can think of is that because we are handling “just one industry” we can and should be involved in as many aspects of this industry as possible.”

Pelmar Engineering Ltd.

Identifying and capitalizing on the opportunities swiftly along with thirst for growth has helped Pelmar diversify their expertise, spread reach globally and offer single-stop shop total solutions for rubber and tyre industry.

Additionally, on this digital edition, we have two knowledge-enriching topics from our portal aptly titled ‘Insight’ and ‘Tips’ sections.

Download PDF of this special edition here

I hope you find the contents informative to learn more about this leader in rubber and tyre industry.


If you found this supplier details informative, please do share with your colleagues, customers and friends who could benefit. And if you would like to be informed of our articles regularly, please register with us for free updates today.


Know Your Supplier is an advertorial initiative of Rubber & Tyre Machinery World. 

If you would like your organization to be promoted on Rubber Machinery World, please see the opportunities on Partner Me or Contact Me at engage@rubbermachineryworld.com for your customized offering.


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Why We Love Gear Coupling (And You Should, Too!)

First things first! You choose a coupling to connect two shafts together at their ends to transmit power. The primary purpose of coupling is to join two pieces of rotating equipment while permitting some degree of misalignment or end movement or both.

Normally, couplings do not allow shafts to disconnect during operation, however there are torque limiting couplings which can slip or disconnect when some torque limit is exceeded. Hence, you should carefully select, install and maintain couplings; as this could give you substantial savings in the form of reduced maintenance costs and downtime.

Gear Coupling

A gear coupling is a mechanical device to join two rotating shafts (that are not collinear) for efficient transmission of mechanical power. These are crucial because although you may align the shafts (for example, between the gearbox and the mixing mill roll) at the time of installation, it is likely that during the operation there may be disruption to this alignment.

Disruptions could occur due to setting of foundation, thermal expansion, shaft deflection, wearing out of other parts, improper maintenance and many more reasons. At these times, where the misalignment occurring during the operation is unavoidable, a gear coupling compensate or minimize the effect of misalignment thus providing a good solution to prevent your rubber machinery, bearings, seals and shafts from being subjected to the additional forces.

Gear couplings are power intensive and considered as the king of the coupling types. You would see the gear couplings being adopted for wide range of application in drive technologies. Hence, we love love gear coupling (and I think, you would too!).

Gear Couplings and Universal Joints

Gear couplings and universal joints are used in similar applications. Gear couplings have higher torque densities than universal joints designed to fit a given space, while universal joints induce lower vibrations. The limit on torque density in universal joints is due to the limited cross sections of the cross and yoke.

The gear teeth in a gear coupling have high backlash to allow for angular misalignment. The excess backlash can contribute to vibration.

Structure of a Gear Coupling

Gear couplings are torsionally rigid and consist of hubs with multi crowned teeth at flank, tip and chamfering on teeth, gaskets, sleeve and O-rings. The hubs attach to the machinery shafts, and sleeves span the gap from one hub to the next. They are available in two designs – completely flexible and flexible/rigid.

The hub is the heart of any gear coupling. Hence manufacturers take great care to impart a superior design and mostly manufacture the hub on CNC machine for precision. Together with the tooth profile of the hub, these aspects enable the gear coupling to function well under all operating conditions with increased reliability and long life.

The tooth flanks and outer diameter of the external gear are crowned to allow for angular displacement between the two gears. The multi crowned teeth reduce the alignment adjustment and improve the load carrying capacity of the teeth. The backlash between the teeth is minimal due to multi-crown tooth design.

A completely flexible coupling comprises two hubs with an external gear and two outer sleeves with an internal gear. It’s a universal coupling for all sorts of applications and accommodates all possible misalignment (angular, radial and combined) as well as large axial moments.

Structure of a Gear Coupling

A flexible/rigid coupling comprises one flexible geared half and one rigid half. It does not accommodate parallel displacement of shafts but does accommodate angular misalignment.

Information to order Gear Coupling

When you are buying rubber machinery, your machinery supplier or OEM would take care of this. However, you need to understand that there is a check list of information that needs to be provided to a gear coupling supplier that includes,

  1. Specify quantity required and delivery expectations.
  2. Specify shaft or bore sizes and key-way dimensions. You need to give exact dimensions with tolerances.
  3. Specify load – HP and/or torque at a specific RPM. State the normal and maximum conditions of use.
  4. Specify Speed of operation – Minimum, Normal and Maximum.
  5. Specify Application. Most Rubber & Tyre Machinery (Mixers, Kneaders, Mills, Calenders, Extruders, etc) conforms to a service factor classification where heavy shock conditions or frequent reversing peak loads that do not exceed 150 per cent average horse power is observed. Uneven load is usually present during operation. Service factor ranges from 1.25 to 1.50.
  6. Specify Coupling Series, Type and Size.
  7. Specify Space limitations – envelope dimensions, shaft extensions and shaft spacing.
  8. Specify unusual misalignment conditions if any.
  9. Specify Modifications – tapered bores, special keys, hub cut off, counter bores or others
  10. Specify unusual operating conditions ambient temperatures and atmospheres, if any.

Maintenance of Gear Coupling

Gear Coupling maintenance is mostly simple – requiring a regularly scheduled inspection of each coupling. Your schedule should consist of:

  • Performing visual inspections – checking for signs of wear or fatigue, and cleaning couplings regularly.
  • Checking and changing lubricant Each coupling half is provided with grease nipple/plug on the housing from where grease can be filled directly. The coupling is supplied with some quality of grease to facilitate assembly. It is recommended to fill the required quality and quantity of grease before putting the coupling in operation. This maintenance is required annually for most couplings and more frequently for couplings in adverse environments or in demanding operating conditions.
  • Documenting the maintenance performed on each coupling, along with the date.

Here’s a 1:17 min video of dismantling of a gear coupling so you could appreciate the components that make-up this coupling much better.

Video of Dismantling of A Gear Coupling

Video

Failure of Gear Coupling

Caution! Even with proper maintenance, your gear couplings can fail. The other causes of failure include:

  • Improper installation
  • Poor coupling selection
  • Operation beyond design capabilities

The only way to improve your coupling life is to understand what caused the failure and to correct it prior to installing a new coupling. You could check for some external signs that indicate potential coupling failure like,

  • Abnormal noise, such as screeching, squealing or chattering
  • Excessive vibration or wobble
  • Failed seals indicated by lubricant leakage or contamination

Summarizing, gear coupling is a mechanical device to join two rotating shafts for efficient transmission of mechanical power, are power intensive and is the king amongst the coupling types. They offer the highest load capacity and stiffness, yet easy to maintain. These are some of our reasons to love this gear coupling on the rubber machinery. 

Do you have more? Let us know your thoughts.


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VMI iCOM – A New Alternative to Final Rubber Mixing I Learnt At RUBBERCON 2015 Chennai

The rescheduled edition of RUBBERCON 2015, held on March 1-3, 2016 at Chennai was well-organized by IRI (Indian Rubber Institute) and IRCO (International Rubber Conference Organization).

Personally, this has been one of the best attended, well-organized and amongst biggest conferences I have been to recently. And to most delegates, this has been a different experience altogether.

Kudos to the complete team of organizing committee and supporting members for their massive efforts and time invested to make this conference a success. Because of them, I think RUBBERCON 2015 Chennai would easily occupy its unique place of prominence amongst biggest international conferences.

Over 75 speakers from 19 countries presented papers.

I was fortunate to successfully attend all my shortlisted speakers.

In an earlier post on mixing, I had mentioned that Single-stage mixing is not always cheaper and two-stage mixing is not always better. So, when my good friend, Dirk G.H. Reurslag, Sales Director (Industrial Solutions) of VMI Group (innovative leaders in rubber and tyre machinery) presented a new alternative on Continuous Final Mixing, it caught my attention quickly.

If you are looking to operate the complete mixing line by a single person, then you will find this JIT (Just in Time) approach to continuous mixing and blending of final rubber compounds interesting.

Before you get excited and review it’s long list of advantages, let me brief you the basic concept.

Basic Concept:

At its heart, this “mixing approach” has a cold-feed extruder along with the gear pump and they are controlled by software. VMI calls it iCOM®.

Sound’s simple (Right?)…. Wait. There’s more to it.

VMI Continuous final mixing

VMI Continuous Final Mixing Line

Operating Principle:

If you are seeking continuous proportional blending, you will know that proper distribution-mixing should take in the screw extruder.  And for final mixing, you require the screw extruder to properly incorporate the chemicals into the compound mix. Hence, the mixing screw design from VMI is advanced and unique.

The software used is equally sophisticated to control the speeds of the screw, the pump (and input pressure) and the volumetrically operated loss-in-weight feeding system.  The mixing and proportional blending uses

  1. the volumetric operating principle of the gear pump (Read our earlier post on the concept of gear pump working) and
  2. the abilities of homogeneous plasticizing of the rubber by the screw type extruder.

The special screw extruders are the VMI SHARK® extruder gear pump combinations. Different screw types are available. VMI recommends that they select a screw for you depending on your specific application.

The chemicals to be mixed are usually polymer bound, pre-dispersed, in the form of granules and are fed to the mixing extruder by an accurate volumetrically operated loss-in-weight feeding system.

Image - VMI

Proportional Blending (L) & Continuous Final Mixing (R)

For Proportional Blending, you require another side-feeding extruder gear-pump. The function of the screw of this side feeding extruder is not to mix. Rather, it only needs to properly plasticize the rubber and feed it (free of entrapped air) to the gear pump. The gear pump, in its turn, pumps the rubber compound into main mixing extruder in a volumetrically controlled fashion.

Continuous Final Mixing:  You can adopt this volumetric controlled mixing-extrusion in combination with accurate dosing of granules (that contains vulcanizing agent and accelerators) by a loss-in-weight feeder, to do continuous mixing.

Controlled Back and Forward Blending:  This is the third type of blending you could achieve in the extruder screw and barrel combination. This ‘compensates’ for little irregularities, if they might occur, in the loss in weight feeding of your polymer bound chemicals

VMI develops new concepts and innovative uses of technology with the end-user. VMI seeks to work with clients that will become launch users and close collaborators. In this way, VMI only ever takes to market concepts that have been tested under real-world conditions and proven to deliver competitive advantage.

Emphasizes Dirk Reurslag, “iCOM® solution is the more economical alternative to mixing in an internal mixer”

VMI worked out the iCOM® final mixing process, which includes the VMI SHARK continuous mixing solution in combination with Rhein Chemie’s  Rhenogran polymer bound chemicals and Rhein Chemie’s Rhenowave in-line analytics.

Benefits

Your advantages of VMI iCOM® for final mixing are

  1. Lower investment on a final mix line delivering faster ROI and time to profit.
  2. Compact, integrated solution occupying modest footprint.
  3. Lower energy consumption as compared to the use of an internal mixer based final mixing line.
  4. No electricity consumption peaks like in the case of an internal mixer. Hence, a sustainable solution that reduces energy use and improves profit potential.
  5. Decentralized final mixing: This means Just in Time production as it reduces costly transport requirements for final batches. This reduces your stock of compounds and simplifies your logistics.
  6. Just in time (decentralized) final mixing allows more ‘rapid’ vulcanizers, resulting in shorter vulcanizing time.
  7. The proportional blending capabilities gives you various kinds of possibilities – Cross Blending (Most of you in mixing would know it well. This is referred to as just blending from two stage mixing), Controlled back and forward blending or Proportional Blending (both mentioned earlier.)
  8. No ‘fading’ in the produced strip: no difference in heat treatment: With batch production the first part of the (long) strip was shorter on the mill than the last part.
  9. Consistent quality of final mix compound with no scrap or rejects.
  10. One Energy Cycle (Heat-up, Cool-down cycle) can be avoided by combining final mixing with first extrusion step.
  11. Straining in the iCOM® line is possible
  12. Degassing in the iCOM® line is possible
  13. Affordable for even smaller companies

And just in case you thought this is an entirely new concept, you are in for a surprise. A Belgian compound manufacturer has the VMI iCOM® production line installed and successfully working since 2012.

VMI Group’s leadership in Extruder-Gear Pump solutions is renowned. They specialize in designing and engineering superior customized machinery for the rubber and tyre industry.

When I visited their stall at RUBBERCON 2015, I also learnt something new in their souvenir they were gifting to their customers. Known as Klomp, (more interesting facts here – Clogs), they are a type of footwear made in part or completely from wood. Pair of these is known as Klompen.

If you had been to their stall, did you pick up Klomp or Klompen (Single or Pair)?

Klompen

Summarizing, if you are looking for an innovative, automatic, decentralized, Just-In-Time, final rubber mixing line without internal mixers, this new alternative in VMI iCOM® I learnt at RUBBERCON 2015 Chennai is worth your evaluation. I am also informed, it further enables production of customized, creative and precisely targeted compounds.             

What do you think?


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Rubber Extruders And Extrusion – Special Supplement

Rubber industry only had Hot Feed Extruders until 1950’s. Then came the Cold Feed Extruders and other variations as we see them today.

Rubber extruders have a varied field of application. So, when you come across a rubber profile, strip, hose, cable, wire, cord coating, tire tread, v-belt, tube, or blank remember that they are only a few handful of products manufactured using extrusion process.

Life today is mostly spent trying to catch up with latest developments. However, in the process the basics and fundamentals are sometimes overlooked. So, in this Knowledge On-The-Go Special Supplement, we bring to you a ‘collector’s edition’ on Extruders and Extrusion incorporating the fundamentals.

(Our digital editions are available on two platforms – Youblisher or Yumpu)

Extruders_Special Supplement

Click on the Image to Flip Through The Digital Book

Download PDF Here

I hope you find this special supplement informative.

(Disclaimer: All the pictures and statements in this special supplement are sourced from web or shared by respective companies. All copyrights belong to actual owner. Rubber Machinery World does not independently verify them nor will vouch for their genuineness, hence will not be liable for any misrepresented data. The images are used here for representation purpose only.)


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If you are an equipment supplier and would like your organization to be promoted on Rubber & Tyre Machinery World, please see the opportunities on Partner Me or Contact Me at rubbermachineryworld@gmail.com for your customized offering.


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Tyre Technology Is An Amalgamation Of Science And Engineering – P.K.Mohamed

Tyre Technology is an amalgamation of science and engineering. It is dominated by physics, chemistry, mechanical and chemical engineering, says P.K.Mohamed, Chief Adviser – Research & Technology and Member of Management Board, Apollo Tyres Ltd. in an exclusive interview with Rubber Machinery World.

Mohamed is a soft-spoken and an accomplished tyre technologist with 5 decades of experience in the field of Tyre Technology and Manufacturing. When you read this passionate interview of his journey from a college lecturer to a well-known tyre technologist, you will observe struggles, challenges, achievements, dedication and loyalty; and importance of continuous education – a complete package of learning and leadership wisdom for new generation of aspiring professionals in tyre industry.

Mohamed is a Fellow Member of the Rubber and Plastic Institute London, Member in the Management Board of Apollo Tyres Ltd, Industrial Advisory board of Centre for Tyre Research, USA, IRCO and Area Director of American Chemical Society Rubber Division. Mohamed is also the Chairman of Indian Tyre Technical Advisory Committee (ITTAC), Technology Environment Safety and Standard (TESS) group of ATMA and past chairman of IRI. He has several international publications to his credit.

Mohamed’s exceptional knowledge, clarity, relevance and insight on the various aspects is awe-inspiring. I consider it a privilege to know him and present his thoughts to you in our “Know A Leader” Series.

Know-A-Leader-Mohamed-Apollo-Tyres

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I urge you not to miss reading this complete interview online on our digital edition (please click on the image above). You will immensely gain from his wisdom shared through passionate narration of personal experiences growing Apollo’s technology might; know his views on changes in rubber compounding,  future of tyre building, new ideas energizing the tyre industry, sustainable profitability, automation, notes for equipment manufacturers, and machinery selection advice for buyers.

Here’s one teaser Q&A below, while the full interview has 10 questions.

Q6) Tyre design is a fascinating topic though few people really understand the differences in design between brands. How has the design of tyres really changed during as you witnessed it? What were the key factors driving this change?

P.K.Mohamed:

Tyre technology is an amalgamation of science and engineering. It is dominated by physics, chemistry, mechanical and chemical engineering. Tyre is a product which is a unique combination of steel and rubber.

Steel is responsible to withstand all stresses experienced by the tyre and rubber is responsible for taking care of its strain. Such an intelligent sharing of stresses and strain is rarely seen in any other product other than a tyre. So it is a challenge for the tyre engineer to design a carcass of a tyre with minimal strain on material when the same is stressed by inflation, vehicle load or traction loads. This challenge further increases when it comes to the tread design. Tread is responsible not only for providing adequate traction, mileage, and water drainage but also need to cater to other performance requirement of rolling resistance and noise. It is noticed that, several new concepts such as natural inflated profile (NIP), and Tension Controlled Optimized Theory (TCOT), have been tried by several companies but the tyre technologist is yet not very successful in creating a carcass which can withstand under inflated condition and provide the same performance. This still remains as a challenge. In the case of tread, several developments have taken place to enhance water drainage & traction improvement, reduction in foot print pressure & noise and improvement in aesthetics and aggressive looks. While the pattern design methodology followed by many companies generally follow same guidelines, significant deviations are seen recently to meet the new-found challenges in meeting label values in RR, traction and noise. In depth understanding is required to make significant alterations in tried and tested designs to meet ever-increasing performance requirements and advanced design simulation tools are of great use for the tyre designers in this process. With the usage of new materials and improvements in compound properties, tyre technologists are now trying to tune the behavior of new compounds in different designs for optimal performance in a given operating condition.

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